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Lesson 10. Eating Up Energy
Week Two Lessons
6. It's a Gas!
7. How Heavy are They?
8. When You're Hot, You're Hot
9. Watt's Up?
10. Eating Up Energy

Energy consumption by country | Personal & Social Perspectives (Ecology)

Links on this page:
Eating Up Energy – Student Sheet | Eating Up Energy - Student Sheet | Eating Up Energy – Teacher Answer Key | Eating Up Energy - Country Information Cards | Eating Up Energy - Teacher Data Chart | Eating Up Energy- Student Data Chart

National Education Standards Met:

science

 

Goals: Students will compare and contrast amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions among the top ten user countries to understand global effects of emissions.

Objectives:  Using a simulation, students will:

  • Identify the amount of energy a country consumes.
  • Calculate CO2 releases based on energy consumption.
  • Map the global impact of energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

Materials (For a class of 30):

  • 110 Hershey Miniature Candy bars, Starburst with wrappers.
  • Scotch tape
  • 30 pairs of latex gloves
  • 10 small plastic bags (ziplock type)
  • 10 Country Information cards (1 per group)
  • 30 student sheets
  • 10 Air Space Area sheets
  • 1 sheet of large butcher paper to create ‘world’
  • 10 permanent markers

Time Requirement:  Two 45-60 minute class periods

Standards Met:  S1, S5, S6, S7, LA4, LA5, LA6, LA11, LA12 N3, A2, A4, C4, E1, E2, E3, E4, G1, G3, WH9

Procedure:

PREP

  • Purchase candy (110 pieces that must have wrappers).
  • Prepare a rectangular representation of the world’s total air space.  It should be 85 inches wide and 110 inches long.  Students will place their completed countries (on an 8.5” x 11” piece of paper) on this space.  You might want to divide it up into 8.5” x 11” sections to make it obvious where students should put their country.  This will become the “World Air Space Area.”
  • Read through student directions and discussion questions.
  • The following fictitious countries match the real country listed.  Do not give this information out to students; they will have to determine which country is represented through discussion.

Unstattica = United States
Underalia Land = Australia
Shafangistan  = Afghanistan
Sarrasadi  = Saudi Arabia
Fratopia = France
Chiachia = China
Gamtulala = Guatemala
Entipian= Ethiopia
Jahongo =  Japan
Infirdiddy =  India

  • Put the names of the countries in a hat.
  • Prepare Country Information Cards.  You may want to laminate them for re-use.
  • Photocopy Air Space Area sheets for each country.
  • Prepare Country Packs: three pairs of latex gloves, correct amount of candy, 1 baggie, Country Information Card, Air Space Area sheet, 3 student sheets, and tape.

DAY ONE

  • Divide students into groups of 3 and ask them to sit together.  Ideally, they will sit at tables or can combine desks to create a larger surface area to use.
  • Explain that each team will be assigned a real country with a fake name to represent.  They will be investigating the global nature of emissions.
  • Use the names of the countries that are in the hat to assign groups.
  • When a group is assigned, give them the appropriate Country Pack. 
  • Ask students to wait until everyone is assigned to a country before they try to begin the activity. 
  • Review the directions on the student sheet.  Be sure students understand all directions prior to letting them begin the activity. 
  • Give students time to complete Part One on the student sheet.  This involves unwrapping candy, taping wrappers to the Air Space Area, placing candy in a plastic bag, and writing a list of benefits.
  • When they are finished with Part One, review each country’s Air Space Area sheets.  Ask students to keep a tally of how many wrappers are on each and write it in the table in Part Two of the student sheet.
  • Discuss:  What countries have extra air space?  What countries have a full Air Space Area?
  • Discuss the benefits each country listed.  What is the difference between needs and wants?  Did some countries have more wants than others?  Were all countries needs met?
  • Ask students to continue the activity following the directions on Part Two of the student sheet.
  • Serve as the “Keeper of the Extra Air Space.”  Students must come to you FIRST to put their country’s extra wrappers on another country’s extra air space. Students will compete for the extra air space.
  • Direct students to countries that have extra air space.  If they have extra wrappers that do not fit anywhere, they should give them to you.
  • After all groups have had a chance to put their extra wrappers on the World Air Space, ask each country to review their situation with the class.  Where did they put their extras?  Did their country absorb more wrappers?
  • Review and discuss.  Did countries with extra air space to start get any more benefits when all of their air space filled up with wrappers from other countries?  Countries with extra air space at first are full now but without any extra benefits.  Discuss this concept with students.  Is that fair? 
  • Tally the total number of wrappers on each country’s Air Space Area sheets.  Ask students to write the numbers into the table in Part Two on the Eating Up Energy-Student Sheet.
  • Discuss the changes before and after air space sharing.
  • Assign Day One homework.

Homework Day One:

  • Ask students to try to figure out what the real name of their country is. 

Assessment:

  • Completed activity
  • Completed student sheet

 

DAY TWO

  • Ask students to get into their groups again.
  • Review homework assignment.  What are the real countries they represented yesterday?
  • Hand out the Eating Up Energy-Student Data Chart.
  • Using the information on the teacher sheet and on each Country Information Card, guide students in filling out the following columns:  Population, Square Area, Persons/km2, Energy Consumption 2000, CO2 Emissions 2000.
  • Give students the data for Energy Consumption 1990.  Discuss possible reasons why there may or may not be differences for each country with the 2000 data.
  • Give students data for CO2 Emissions for 1990. Discuss differences with 1990 data.
  • Explain to students that they will need to find the percent change in Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions for their country. 
  • Review the formula and procedure for finding percent change.  The formula is written on the student sheet. 
  • Ask students to complete this calculation individually following the directions on the student sheet.
  • Review answers with the class when everyone has completed the calculations.  What might be possible reasons why some countries have higher or lower percent change? 
  • Ask students to follow the student sheet and calculate the 2000 per capita of energy consumption and emissions for their country.
  • When the activity is complete, review each group’s experience.  What did they find the most and least difficult?  What similarities do they think exist between the activity and the real world?

Assessment:

  • Completed Eating Up Energy-Student Sheet, Day Two

 

Eating Up Energy – Student Sheet

Goals: Compare and contrast amount of energy consumption and CO2 emissions among the top ten user countries to understand global effects of emissions.

Materials for your group:

  • Candy
  • Country Information card
  • Student sheet
  • Three pairs of latex gloves
  • Tape
  • 1 plastic bag
  • Air Space Area sheet
  • 1 permanent marker
  • Scissors 

Background Information:

  • A Btu, British Thermal Unit, is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a pound (one pint) of water one degree Fahrenheit (or 252 calories).  Overall energy consumption in the U.S. is often measured in Btu’s.
  • A Quad stands for one quadrillion (1015) Btu’s (or 2.93 x 1011 kilowatt hours)

Procedure:

NOTE:  For the sake of simplicity, all countries, although different in size, have the same air space.  The intent is to show the effects of having either a surplus or lack of enough air space to accommodate emissions. 


PART ONE

  • Appoint a leader for your country.
  • The leader reads the energy information from the Country Information card.  Another student should count the candy to be sure it is the right amount.
  • Write the name of your country on the top of the Air Space Area Sheet and on the outside of the plastic bag.  Use the permanent marker provided.
  • All group members should put on gloves.
  • Split the candy among the members of your country and carefully, without ripping the wrapper, open each one.
  • Place the opened candy in the baggie to represent benefits.  Don’t eat it!  Place the baggie aside for now.
  • Flatten out the wrappers completely.  Tape as many, if not all, of your wrappers to your Air Space Area sheet.

NOTE:  Your wrappers CANNOT overlap or hang over the edge of the paper.  Wrappers cannot be wadded up or folded in any manner.  They MUST be completely flat.  If you have space for just ½ a wrapper, you may cut it in half to make it fit.

  • If you have extra wrappers, set them aside but do not throw them away.
  • Take your completed Air Space Area sheet to the World Air Space and tape it to the area.  Again, no part of your sheet can be overlapping or hanging off the area.
  • Retrieve your bag of candy.  In Part One of your student sheet, complete the Benefit Table.  Each piece of candy represents one benefit the people of your country receive from industrialization.
  • Let your teacher know you are finished with Part One.

PART TWO

  • Write the name of your country on each of your leftover wrappers with the permanent marker.
  • Send one person to the World Air Space Square with the leftover wrappers.  They must first present the wrappers to the teacher who will then allow them to tape the wrappers to other countries’ air spaces. 
  • Wrappers cannot overlap other wrappers or hang over the edges of the country’s Air Space Area.
  • IMPORTANT!  You must try to get rid of ALL of your wrappers.  IF there is absolutely no more air space left on the World Air Space Square, give your leftover wrapper(s) to the teacher.
  • Participate in a class discussion.
  • Complete Part Two of the student sheet.

 

Eating Up Energy - Student Sheet

 

  1. Country Name:                                                                                            

Population:                                                    million people
Land Area:                                                    million square km
Energy Consumption:                                    quadrillion Btu’s
CO2 Emissions:                                             million metric tons

PART ONE

Remember:  Each wrapper represents CO2 emissions.  Each piece of candy represents a benefit the people of your country receive.
Complete the following:

  1. How many pieces of candy did your country receive?                               

    These are your benefits.

  2. Brainstorm a list of benefits in correlation to the number of pieces of candy your country received.  List them in the table below.  Begin with Basic Needs and, if you have enough candy to cover needs, list Wants.

Benefit Table

Benefits
Basic Needs

Benefits
Wants

  1. Ex:  Food

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Ex:  CD player

 

TOTAL:

TOTAL:

 

3. How many wrappers were you able to fit on your country’s Air Space Area?                                

 

4. How many total wrappers are on the World Air Space Area?                              

 

PART TWO

Complete the following:

1. How many extra wrappers did you have?                                       

 

2. List the countries where you were able to tape your extra wrappers.

 

3. What are some reasons why these countries have extra Air Space?

 

4. Complete the table below after hearing summaries from all of the countries.

Country

# Candies

# Wrappers after sharing Air Space

Unstattica



 

 

Jahongo



 

 

Infirdiddy



 

 

Fratopia



 

 

Underalia Land  

 

 

 

Sarrasadi



 

 

Chiachia



 

 

Gamtulala



 

 

Entipian



 

 

Shafangistan



 

 

 

 

5. What happened to the countries whose extra air space was taken up by countries with extra wrappers?  Did their benefits increase, decrease or stay the same?

 

6. How do your country’s extra wrappers affect the world as a whole?

 

DAY 2

You will find out the real name of your country on Day 2 of this activity. 

1. What is the name of the real country your group represented?

USE THE DATA CHART TO MAKE THE FOLLOWING CALCULATIONS:


2. Calculate percent change in Energy Consumption from 1990-2000 for your country.  Use the formula below and show all work.

Percent Change Formula: 
X = (2000 data – 1990 data) x 100
               1990 data

1990 Energy Consumption:                                    

2000 Energy Consumption:                                    

Calculate Percent change:

 

 

 

Percent Change in Energy Consumption:                                  

 

 

 

3. Calculate percent change in CO2 Emissions from 1990-2000 for your country.  Use the same formula.

 

1990 CO2 Emissions:                                   

2000 CO2 Emissions:                                   

Calculate Percent change:

 

 

Percent change in CO2 Emissions:                                  

 

4. Calculate 2000 Emissions Per Capita for your country. 

Formula:  X = 2000 Emissions
                 2000 Population

 

 

 

 

2000 Emissions Per Capita:                                   

5. Estimate 2050 Emissions for your country.  Assume that Year 2000 per capita emissions are held stable. 

Formula:  X =
Year 2050 population x Year 2000 emissions
Year 2000 population   

 

 

 

 

 

2050 Emissions:  ________________________

 

BE SURE TO WRITE ALL ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT COLUMNS IN THE DATA SHEET.

6. Why you think there were changes in both Emissions and Energy Consumption.  What might have been happening in your country to account for the changes?

 

 

7. Why do some developing countries have very high emissions?

 

 

8. Why do some industrialized countries have very low emissions?  What are the potential positive and negative consequences of having low emissions in an industrialized country?

 

 

9. Assuming that the world emits carbon dioxide at 2000 levels, how will global emissions change in 2050?  Do you think that emissions will remain at 2000 levels in the year 2050?  Why or why not? 

 

Eating Up Energy – Teacher Answer Key

 

Country Name:        (found on country card)                                                               

Population:   (found on country card)      million people

Land Area:   (found on country card)      square km

Energy Consumption: (found on country card)  quadrillion Btu’s

CO2 Emissions: (found on country card)           million metric tons

PART ONE

Remember:  Each wrapper represents CO2 emissions.  Each piece of candy represents a benefit the people of your country receive.

Complete the following:

  1. How many pieces of candy did your country receive?                               

    These are your benefits.


  2. Brainstorm a list of benefits in correlation to the number of pieces of candy your country received.  List them in the table below. Begin with Basic Needs and, if you have enough to cover basic needs, list Wants.

 

Benefit Table

Benefits
Basic Needs

Benefits
Wants

Food

Water

Shelter

Air/Oxygen

Clothing

 

 

 

CD player

TV

DVD player

Cell phone

Chocolate shake when I’m not hungry

 

 

TOTAL:

TOTAL:

 

3. How many wrappers were you able to fit on your country’s Air Space Area?
(Will vary for each country)                               

 

4. How many total wrappers are on the World Air Space Area?
            110             
 

 

PART TWO

Complete the following:

1. How many extra wrappers did you have? 

Will vary for each country

2. List the countries where you were able to tape your extra wrappers.

This will vary depending on the type of candy wrapper you use, but might include:
Gamtulala
Entipian
Shafangistan

3. What are some reasons why these countries have extra Air Space?

Answers will vary, but might include:
Some countries have less energy consumption so they have less CO2 output.  Other countries have fewer people with large land area so they have more space to put their lower CO2 emissions.

4. Complete the table below after hearing summaries from all of the countries.

 

Country

# Benefits

# Wrappers before sharing Air Space

# Wrappers after sharing Air Space

Unstattica

20

This will vary depending on the type of candy wrapper you use

This will vary depending on the type of candy wrapper you use

Chiachia

18

 

 

Jahongo

16

 

 

Infirdiddy

14

 

 

Fratopia

12

 

 

Underalia Land   

10

 

 

Sarrasadi

8

 

 

Gamtulala

6

 

 

Entipian

4

 

 

Shafangistan

2

 

 

 

5.  What happened to the countries whose extra air space was taken up by countries with extra wrappers?  Did their benefits increase, decrease or stay the same?

The countries that had to take extra wrappers did not get more benefits, and now those countries have to deal with the impacts of other people’s emissions.

CO2 emissions do not necessarily stay in one place.  They stay in the atmosphere for 100 years and move all over the planet.  Countries that do not have high CO2 emissions are still impacted by everyone else’s emissions.  It is a global issue.

6. How do your country’s extra wrappers affect the world as a whole?

My country’s extra wrappers have impacts across the world.  People in my country get all the benefits, but people in other countries experience the effects of global climate change caused, in part, by my emissions.

 

DAY 2

You will find out the real name of your country on Day 2 of this activity. 

  1. What is the name of the real country your group represented?

    USE THE DATA CHART TO MAKE THE FOLLOWING CALCULATIONS:


  2. Calculate percent change in Energy Consumption from 1990-2000 for your country.  Use the formula below and show all work.

    Percent Change Formula: 
    (2000 data – 1990 data)¸ 1990 data x 100 = percent change

    For example, (300-200) ¸ 200 x 100 = 50 % change

    1990 Energy Consumption:         (see teacher data chart)                           

    2000 Energy Consumption:        (see teacher data chart)                           
    Calculate Percent change:          (see teacher data chart)        

    Percent Change in Energy Consumption:       (see teacher data chart)                           


  3. Calculate percent change in CO2 Emissions from 1990-2000 for your country.  Use the same formula.

    1990 CO2 Emissions:         (see teacher data chart)                                              

    2000 CO2 Emissions:       (see teacher data chart)                                     
    Calculate Percent change:          (see teacher data chart)        

    Percent change in CO2 Emissions:                  (see teacher data chart)                        


  4. Calculate 2000 Emissions Per Capita for your country. 

    Formula:  X = 2000 Emissions
                     2000 Population

                (see teacher data chart)

    2000 Emissions Per Capita:                   (see teacher data chart)                                     


  5. Estimate 2050 Emissions for your country.  Assume that Year 2000 per capita emissions are held stable. 

    Formula:  X =
    Year 2050 population x Year 2000 emissions
    Year 2000 population   


    2050 Emissions:  ___(see teacher data chart)      _____________________


     BE SURE TO WRITE ALL ANSWERS IN THE CORRECT COLUMNS IN THE DATA SHEET.


  6. Write a few reasons why you think there were changes in both Emissions and Energy Consumption.  What might have been happening in your country to account for the changes?

    Emissions may increase or decrease.  Reasons for increased emissions may be from more industrialization and energy use, more deforestation.  Reasons for decreased emissions could be changed agricultural practices, planting trees, or that the industrial economy has gone bad.  On the other hand, as countries move to more service-oriented economies, their emissions per unit of gross domestic product go down.

    (NOTE:  The figures for CO2 emissions in this exercise are industrial sources only.  There are also figures available that include total emissions from land use changes, but these are compiled from different sources, and with different accounting methods.  The U.S. actually has FEWER emissions overall if land use changes are included, as crops and forests absorb more CO2 than they emit.  On the other hand, a country like Brazil has much higher emissions if land use changes are taken into account, because of Amazonian deforestation.)


  7. Why do some developing countries have very high emissions?

    Developing countries may have low emissions per person, but very high emissions overall if their populations are large.  It demonstrates that population is a large driver of overall energy use and emissions.


    Another reason may be that developing countries use fewer advanced technologies, and rely mainly on coal for power, which has high emissions.

    Developing countries may also have inefficient industries and transportation that have high emissions per unit of energy created.



  8. Write a few reasons why some industrialized countries have very low emissions.  What are the potential positive and negative consequences of having low emissions in an industrialized country?

    The primary driver is the use of nuclear power.  Nuclear energy emits no CO2 as power is generated.  France generates 78% of its energy from nuclear power, Japan 29% and the U.S. 20%.  Nuclear energy releases no carbon dioxide.  However, there is the problem of radioactive waste, which must be safely stored for thousands of years. On the other hand, it would take 30 metric tons of nuclear fuel to power a 1,000 megawatt power plant for one year compared to 2.6 million metric tons of coal, which turns into over 2 million metric tons of gases and over 500,000 tons of solid waste products.  If a country were to rely more heavily on nuclear power, it would have lower emissions of carbon dioxide and other air pollutants (which cause acid rain, smog, and mercury pollution), but more radioactive waste.

    Renewable energy is a much smaller driver.  It amounts to 6% of power in the U.S.  Some countries have abundant renewable power, like Iceland, which is able to rely upon geothermal energy for most of its power.  If a country were to rely more heavily on renewable sources of power it would also have lower emissions.  However, renewable energy is more expensive, and is intermittent (i.e., it’s hard to generate solar power at night, or wind power on calm days).


  9. Assuming that the world emits carbon dioxide at 2000 levels, how will global emissions change in 2050?  Do you think that emissions will remain at 2000 levels in the year 2050?  Why or why not?

    Population is generally increasing (with the exception of Japan), so multiplying CO2 emissions by population should result in higher emissions for all except Japan.  This demonstrates that population is a large driver in CO2 emissions, even if the amount of energy consumed per person varies from country to country.  Countries with large and/or fast growing populations are likely to be major contributors in the future.

    In addition, it is likely that energy consumption will not stay at 2000 per capita levels, but will continue to increase, particularly in developing economies, compounding the amount of overall increased emissions.

    On the other hand, by the year 2050, the world may have developed new technologies that eliminate carbon dioxide emissions, meaning that emissions could be lower.  This could include advanced coal power plants that capture the CO2 and sequester it underground; more reliable and efficient renewable energy; hydrogen; perhaps nuclear fusion.  After all, the equivalent of an iPod 25 years ago was a Walkman connected to a supercomputer.  Therefore, with technology, it is possible that 2050 levels, though higher, might remain at or even below 2000 levels.

    (NOTE:  Even if technology improves vastly, the existing CO2 in the atmosphere will remain for approximately 100 years, meaning that we would not likely see a decline for decades.)

Eating Up Energy -
Country Information Cards

 

 

UNSTATTICA

Population (2005) = 296 million
Population (2050) = 409 million
Land Area= 9.6 million km2
31 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 99.0
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 5,762

20 Candy pieces

Number 1 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

Number 1 in CO2 Emissions

 

 

 
SHAFANGISTAN

Population (2005) = 30 million
Population (2050) = 70 million
Land Area= 647 thousand km2
5 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 0.023
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 0.915

2 Candy pieces

Number 158 in Energy consumption(out of 214 countries)

Number 144 in CO2 Emissions

 

UNDERALIA LAND

Population(2005) = 20 million
Population (2050) = 26 million
Land Area= 7.7 million km2
3 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 4.87
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 332

12 Candy pieces

Number 17 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

Number 15 in CO2 Emissions

 

 

SARRASADI

Population(2005) = 26 million
Population (2050) = 55 million
Land Area= 2.0 million km2
13 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 4.85
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 266

10 Candy pieces

Number 18 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

Number 21 in CO2 Emissions

 


 

FRATOPIA

 

Population(2005) = 61 million
Population (2050) = 64 million
Land Area= 547 thousand km2
112 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 10.9
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 363

14 Candy pieces

Number 8 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

Number 12 in CO2 Emissions

 

 

 

CHIACHIA

 

Population (2005) =  1,306 million
Population (2050) = 1,395 million
Land Area=  9.6 million km2
136 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 38.8
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 3,474

6 Candy pieces

Number 2 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

Number 2 in CO2 Emissions

 

ENTIPIAN

Population (2005) =  73 million
Population (2050) = 171 million
Land Area=  1,127 thousand km2
65 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 0.065
CO2 Emissions (2000)  in million metric tons= 3.65

4 Candy pieces

Number 124 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

Number 116 in CO2 Emissions

 

 

 

JAHONGO

Population (2005) = 127 million
Population (2050) = 110 million
Land Area = 378 thousand km2
336 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 22.3
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 1,225

18 Candy pieces

Number 4 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

 Number 4 in CO2 Emissions

 


 

GAMTULALA

 

Population (2005) =  15 million
Population (2050) = 26 million
Land Area=  109 thousand km2
138 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads= 0.155
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons= 10.1

6 Candy pieces

Number 99 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

Number 91 in CO2 Emissions

 

INFIRDIDDY

 

Population (2005) = 1,065 million
Population (2050) = 1,531 million
Land Area= 3.3 million km2
322 people per km2

Energy Consumption (2000) in quads=13.5
CO2 Emissions (2000) in million metric tons=1,008

16 Candy pieces

Number 6 in Energy consumption (out of 214 countries)

 

Number 5 in CO2 Emissions

 

 


Air Space Area Sheet

Country Name:                                                                                                

Place your country’s wrappers in the white space below.  DO NOT place any wrappers in or above this box.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Eating Up Energy - Teacher Data Chart

Teacher data chart

This chart was created using data from the following online sources: 
www.geography.org
www.cia.gov
www.eia.doe.gov/pub/pdf/international/021901.pdf
www.factmonster.com
http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/data_tables/cli2_2005.pdf

 

Eating Up Energy- Student Data Chart

Student data chart

This chart was created using data from the following online sources:
www.geography.org
www.cia.gov
www.eia.doe.gov/pub/pdf/international/021901.pdf 
www.factmonster.com
http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/data_tables/cli2_2005.pdf

 

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