to send us your inquires or call (852) 36130518
This page lists over 130 resources by topic.
- Economic Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) – provides a “briefing room” with global climate change index and Q & A http://ers.usda.gov/briefing/globalclimate/index.htm
- Agriculture and Climate Change at USDA – offers an issue briefing from the perspective of the Soil and Water Resources Conservation Act (RCA), dated October 1995 http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/ib3text.html
- American Forests is a non-profit group focusing on the planting of trees as a way to decrease greenhouse gases. This website has a personal climate change calculator which allows students to easily determine their impact on climate change. The group provides in-depth explanations on how they arrived at those calculations.
- The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) is a center within the Earth Institute at Columbia University. CIESIN works at the intersection of the social, natural, and information sciences, and specializes in on-line data and information management, spatial data integration and training, and interdisciplinary research related to human interactions in the environment. This link is designed to help locate key documents and data sets that pertain to human dimensions of global environmental change related to agriculture. http://www.ciesin.org/TG/AG/AG-home.html
- List of Agriculture and Global Environment Change Internet resources at http://www.ciesin.org/TG/AG/AG-ir.html
- Bonneville Environmental Foundation. How much CO2 and other greenhouse gasses (CO2e) do your activities create? Fill in the blanks of this CO2 emissions calculator to find out. https://www.greentagsusa.org/GreenTags/calculator_intro.cfm
- Greenhouse Gas Calculator. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/ResourceCenterToolsGHGCalculator.html
- Your Energy Footprint – worksheets for teachers and individuals, from the York University Faculty of Pure and Applied Science. http://resources.yesican.yorku.ca/energy_flow/energy_menu.html
- World Resources Institute (WRI) has many different spreadsheets on CO2 emissions. For more on WRI, see below under Think Tanks.
1. CO2 emissions from fuel used for heating and transportation, (http://docs.wri.org/direct_emissions.xls)
2. CO2 emissions from purchased electricity (http://docs.wri.org/indirect_emissions.xls)
3. CO2 emissions from business travel by air, train, bus and car (http://docs.wri.org/business_travel_emissions.xls)
4. CO2 emissions from employee commuting (http://docs.wri.org/commuting_emissions.xls)
- Cool Kids Tree Calculator – This easy-to-use calculator lets kids determine how many trees they would have to plant to soak up the carbon dioxide produced by a journey via car, airplane, bus, or train.
- The School Bus Emission Calculation Tool (TOOL) is designed for use by school district fleet managers and state and local air pollution authorities to calculate the air pollution reductions that can be achieved by retrofitting fleets of school buses. The TOOL calculates the annual emissions exhausted by buses for an existing bus fleet and for a theoretical future bus fleet, by taking into account retrofitting with control devices and/or using a cleaner burning diesel fuel. The School Bus Emissions Calculator, supported by a grant from the Emission Inventory Improvement Program to the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency, is available at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/schoolbuscalculator/index.html
- The SafeClimate carbon footprint calculator allows you to determine carbon dioxide emissions from major sources: home energy consumption and transportation by car and plane. Available at: http://www.safeclimate.net/calculator/
- Climate Change Calculator from American Forests, available at: http://www.americanforests.org/resources/ccc/
- Climate Change Policy Support. Developing flexible, market-based protocols as low-cost solutions for achieving global reductions of GHG emissions.
- Climate Change Research Division at the Office of Science at the Department of Energy. http://www.science.doe.gov/ober/CCRD_top.html
- Climate Information and Services is a central resource for national and international research on climate change. www.climateservices.gov
- The US Climate Change Science Program integrates federal research on climate and global change, as sponsored by thirteen federal agencies and overseen by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, the Council on Environmental Quality, the National Economic Council and the Office of Management and Budget, available at:
Our Changing Planet: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program for Fiscal Year 2006, A Report by the Climate Change Science Program and The Subcommittee on Global Change Research, available at:
- US Climate Change Technology Program, a multi-agency research and development program for the development of climate change technology, available at:
- U.S. Climate Change Technology Program: Technology Options for the Near and Long Term. A compendium (dated September 2005) of technology profiles and ongoing research and development at participating Federal agencies available at:
- Current research and activities by U.S. government agencies are listed at the following site: “U.S. Climate Change Technology Program - Research and Current Activities.” Available at: http://www.climatetechnology.gov/library/2003/currentactivities/index.htm
- Defense Environmental Network and Information Exchange (DENIX). DENIX is the central platform and information clearinghouse for environment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) news, information, policy, and guidance. Serving the worldwide greater Department of Defense (DoD) community. Information on Climate Change available at: https://www.denix.osd.mil/denix/Public/Library/Climate/climate.html
- Global Warming. Information on global warming at the EPA website. http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html
- US Global Change Research Information Office. Provides access to educational resources and data on preventive technologies.
- MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. Founded in 1991 as an interdisciplinary organization that conducts research, independent policy analysis, and public communication on issues of global environmental change.
- National Position Papers. Explain official positions of the U.S. government on climate change and global warming.
- Smithsonian Institution (SI). The Smithsonian offers a variety of sources of information on climate. Links can be found at the “Biodiversity, Global Climate Change, Understanding Ecosystems” site.
- The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change website offers an interesting perspective on Global Climate Change, essentially that there is not a global warming problem. The Center is dedicated to discovering and disseminating scientific information pertaining to the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on climate and the biosphere:
- US Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) website offers vast amounts of information on topics related to Global Climate Change. It also has a component, "Dr. Global Change", a reference service that assists researchers, students, educators, resource managers, decision makers and the general public in finding information and data relevant to global environmental change. Answers are prepared by GCRIO staff along with staff from U.S. Government agencies:
- White House Policy on climate change is outlined at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/02/climatechange.html
- Climate Change Fact Sheet: The Bush Administration’s Actions on Global Climate Change, available at:
- Global Hydrology and Climate Center
- A four-year study of the Arctic by international scientists shows that the region is warming at nearly twice the rate as the rest of the globe and that increasing greenhouse gases from human activities may make it even warmer in the future, according to a November 8, 2004 press release from the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) located at: http://usinfo.state.gov/gi/Archive/2004/Nov/08-21489.html
- This article on MSNBC.com includes the National Center for Atmospheric Research addressing three of the scenarios presented in the film “The Day After Tomorrow,” a Q&A session with Pew Center for Climate Change Director Eileen Claussen, and a list of online resources on climate change.
- National Geographic article titled “Signs from Earth” by Tim Appenzeller and Dennis R. Dimick investigates global warming in relation to fossil fuel consumption. An article summary is provided--must be a subscriber to view the full article content. http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0409/feature1/index.html
- What's Up with the Weather? (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming) A production of Nova and Frontline, programs produced by the Public Broadcasting System (PBS), this site contains a general summary of the issue of global warming, interviews and debates between scientists, policymakers, and fuel industry representatives, current fossil fuel use, and possible future solutions to using fossil fuels.
- CLIVAR (http://www.clivar.org) is an international research program addressing many issues of natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change, as part of the wider World Climate Research Programme (http://www.wmo.chhttps://web.archive.org/web/wcrp/wcrp-home.html).
- Energy Savers: A Consumer Guide to Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, at the Department of Energy:
- Energy Star - Energy Saving Product Information. ENERGY STAR is a government-backed program helping businesses and individuals protect the environment through superior energy efficiency. http://www.energystar.gov
- Science.gov is a gateway to authoritative selected science information provided by U.S. government agencies, including research and development results. Information on energy and energy conservation at
- Cash for Carbon article regarding carbon credits
- Emissions Marketing Association (EMA) promotes market-based trading solutions for environmental management and to serve its membership.
- Emissions Trading Handbook provides a resource of first reference and practical guide to environmental-based trading programs.
- Environmental Resources Trust (ERT) pioneers the use of market forces to protect and improve the global environment. Founded in 1996, with the help of Environmental Defense, ERT is focused exclusively on building markets that encourage private parties to serve their own best interests and the best interests of the environment. The GHG RegistrySM records validated greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions profiles to help create a market that will enable efficient emissions reductions.
- Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Pilot (GERT) is a Canadian collaboration between the federal government, six provinces, industry associations and environmental groups. http://www.gert.org
- International Emissions Trading Association is an independent, non-profit organization dedicated to the establishment of effective systems for trading emissions:
- Natsource. A world-leader in institutional energy brokering, Natsource provides brokerage and advisory services for natural gas, coal, and electricity, as well as weather hedging and environmental issues. “Natsource Reports GHG Trading Doubled in The Past Year”: http://www.natsource.com/news/index.asp?n=427
- Chicago Climate Exchange®, Inc. (CCXR) is a self-regulatory exchange that administers the world's first multi-national and multi-sector marketplace for reducing and trading greenhouse gas emissions. CCX represents the first voluntary, legally-binding commitment by a cross-section of North American corporations, municipalities and other institutions to establish a rules-based market for reducing greenhouse gases.
- Fifth Annual Workshop on GHG Emissions Trading. This joint event between the IEA, the International Emissions Trading Association and the Electric Power Research Institute took place September 27th and 28th, 2005 at the IEA offices in Paris. It provided an opportunity for government, industry, brokers, finance, and NGO delegates to discuss some of the key issues relating to market developments. The workshop combined presentation of papers on recent research, together with extended discussion sessions on the following subjects: Market news, emissions trading and compatibility with future international architectures, industry experience with emissions trading, extending the coverage of domestic systems, and progress on project mechanisms. A website with relevant information on the Workshop can be found at: http://www.iea.org/textbase/work/workshopdetail.asp?WS_ID=213
- White House policy on “Reliable, Affordable and Environmentally Sound Energy for America’s Future” at
- Action on Climate Change, Energy and Sustainable Development. In July 2005, President Bush and the G-8 Leaders agreed on a far-reaching Plan of Action to speed the development and deployment of clean energy technologies to achieve the combined goals of addressing climate change, reducing harmful air pollution and improving energy security in the U.S. and throughout the world. Fact sheet available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/07/20050708-2.html
- Department of Energy (DOE):
- International Energy Outlook 2005. A site at the Department of Energy that looks at energy consumption worldwide, including use of different fuels in different countries. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/electricity.html
- NASA: A composite picture of the world at night from the Jet Propulsion Lab at NASA. This photo clearly depicts disparities in energy consumption among different nations. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA02991.jpg
- Environmental Defense - Environmental Defense is dedicated to protecting the environmental rights of all people, including future generations. Among these rights are clean air and water, healthy and nourishing food, and a flourishing ecosystem. Information on climate at: http://www.environmentaldefense.org/system/templates/page/focus.cfm?focus=3
- National Environmental Trust (NET) - The National Environmental Trust is a non-profit, non-partisan membership group established in 1994 to inform citizens about environmental problems and how they affect our health and quality of life. Information on climate at: http://environet.policy.net/warming
- National Wildlife Federation (NWF) - The mission of the National Wildlife Federation is to educate, inspire and assist individuals and organizations of diverse cultures to conserve wildlife and other natural resources and to protect the Earth's environment in order to achieve a peaceful, equitable and sustainable future. Information on climate at: http://www.nwf.org/climate/programHomepage.cfm
- Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) - The Natural Resources Defense Council's purpose is to safeguard the Earth: its people, its plants and animals and the natural systems on which all life depends. Information on climate at:
- The Pew Center on Global Climate Change was established in 1998 as a non-profit, non-partisan and independent organization. The Center's mission is to provide credible information, straight answers, and innovative solutions in the effort to address global climate change. Information on climate at:
A GHG market has begun to emerge over the past 5 years, driven by global climate change treaty negotiations likely to impose limitations on GHG emissions. The report “Emissions Trading in the U.S.: Experience, Lessons and Considerations for Greenhouse Gases” looks at GHG trading and policy development, and its market characteristics and future.
- Sierra Club - The Sierra Club is America's oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization with over 700,000 members today. Inspired by nature, Club members work together to protect our communities and the planet. Information on climate at: http://www.sierraclub.org/globalwarming/
- U.S. Public Interest Research Group (U.S. PIRG) - U.S. PIRG is an advocate for the public interest. When consumers are cheated, or our natural environment is threatened, or the voices of ordinary citizens are drowned out by special interest lobbyists, U.S. PIRG speaks up and takes action. Information on climate at:
- Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) - UCS is a nonprofit partnership of scientists and citizens combining rigorous scientific analysis, innovative policy development, and effective citizen advocacy to achieve practical environmental solutions. Information on climate at: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_environment/global_warming/index.cfm
- Winrock International – Winrock International is a nonprofit organization that works with people around the world to increase economic opportunity, sustain natural resources, and protect the environment. Winrock matches innovative approaches in agriculture, natural resources management, clean energy, and leadership development with the unique needs of its partners. (http://www.winrock.org/). Projects related to carbon sequestration can be found at:
Opportunities for Mitigating Carbon Emissions through Forestry Activities,” by Sandra Brown. http://www.winrock.org/reep/Opportun_carbon.html
2. Carbon Sequestration and Sustainable Coffee Project. Develop a carbon inventory and monitoring plan in the Lake Atitlan Region of Guatemala where farmers produce shade-grown coffee, and determine the potential carbon accumulation or sequestration benefits of this agricultural activity.
- Energy Savings in the Home. The first web-based do-it-yourself energy audit tool, sponsored by DOE and EPA:
- Life Cycle Assessment Tools to measure Environmental Impacts – reports on results of a forum regarding the application of life cycle assessment tools to homebuilding. Section III addresses climate change factors. At the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD): http://www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/lifecycle.pdf
- Partnerships for Home Energy Efficiency is a joint effort of the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This website provides energy-saving information for homeowners, contractors and builders, building manager, realtors, and state agencies:
- Global Climate Coalition (GCC)
This organization of industries opposed to climate change regulations is inactive, but its website still contains active links.
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce (http://www.uschamber.com) When it comes to representing American business -- strength and reputation matter. That's why 3 million companies of all sizes look to us to advance their interests before Congress, government agencies, and the courts. Information about climate at: http://www.uschamber.com/issues/index/environment/climatechange.htm
1. The report “Reality Check: Straight Talk About Climate Change” is available at: http://www.uschamber.com/NR/rdonlyres/
- Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (http://www.autoalliance.org) The Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers is a trade association of 9 car and light truck manufacturers. One out of every 10 jobs in the U.S. is dependent on the automotive industry. No other industry is linked to so much U.S. manufacturing or generates more retail business and employment. Position on climate change:
- National Association of Manufacturers (http://www.nam.org) The NAM's mission is to enhance the competitiveness of manufacturers and to improve American living standards by shaping a legislative and regulatory environment conducive to U.S. economic growth, and to increase understanding among policymakers, the media and the public about the importance of manufacturing to America's economic strength. Climate Change Science Articles http://www.nam.org/secondary.asp?TrackID=&CategoryID=1161
- National Mining Association (http://www.nma.org) The National Mining Association (NMA) is the voice of the American mining industry in Washington, D.C. NMA is the only national trade organization that represents the interests of mining before Congress, the Administration, federal agencies, the judiciary and the media. Our membership includes more than 325 corporations involved in all aspects of the mining industry including coal, metal and industrial mineral producers, mineral processors, equipment manufacturers, state associations, bulk transporters, engineering firms, consultants, financial institutions and other companies that supply goods and services to the mining industry. NMA provides a forum for all the diverse segments of the mining industry to come together and advocate public policies designed to protect and expand opportunities for domestic mining. See their article: “CO2: A Pollutant?” at http://www.nma.org/about_us/publications/pub_co2_pollutant.asp.
- Edison Electric Institute (http://www.eei.org) EEI is the premier trade association for U.S. shareholder-owned electric companies. Our U.S. members serve nearly 70 percent of all electric utility ultimate customers in the nation, and generate almost 70 percent of the electricity produced by U.S. electric utilities. Climate actions available at
- American Petroleum Institute (http://www.api.org)
1. Air Quality Improvements and Climate Change Partnerships
2. A report entitled “Key Uncertainties, Milestones and Issues in the CCSP: An Assessment of the Strategic Plan of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program” available at:
- American Gas Association (http://www.aga.org) The American Gas Association represents 187 local energy utility companies that deliver natural gas to more than 52 million homes, businesses and industries throughout the United States. Environmental Benefits of Natural Gas available at http://www.aga.org/Content/NavigationMenu/About_Natural_Gas/
- International Energy Agency, based in Paris, is an autonomous agency linked with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
- International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been established to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
- World Energy Council.
The World Energy Council (WEC) is the foremost global multi-energy organization in the world today. WEC has Member Committees in over 90 countries, including most of the largest energy producing and energy consuming countries. The 80-year-old organization covers all types of energy, including peat, wood, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, hydro, and renewables, and is UN-accredited, non-governmental, non-commercial and non-aligned. WEC is a UK-registered charity headquartered in London.
- United Nations
1. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The main website for international work on climate change, including information on various treaties.
2. Food and Agriculture Organization (UNFAO).
The FAO was founded in 1945 with a mandate to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living, to improve agricultural productivity, and to better the condition of rural populations. They report on “Harvesting Carbon Sequestration Through Land-use Change: A Way Out of Rural Poverty?” available at: http://www.fao.org/english/newsroom/news/2002/9040-en.html
3. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Established in 1964, UNCTAD aims at the development-friendly integration of developing countries into the world economy. “A pilot greenhouse gas trading system.” Includes rules for emissions trading. Available at:
- World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
is a coalition of 170 international companies united by a shared commitment to sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, ecological balance and social progress. Information on Energy and Climate available at http://www.wbcsd.ch/templates/TemplateWBCSD4/
- Center for International Climate and Environmental Research-Oslo (Cicero) mandate is to both conduct research and provide information about issues of climate change.
- "Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)." In this four page POSTnote, the UK government's global strategy to address climate change is discussed. The POSTnote discusses the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS) to reduce UK and global emissions, and also the costs, environmental impacts and public perceptions of CCS. POSTnote, March 2005, available at:
- ChevronTexaco position on climate change: One of the environmental concerns we all share is global climate change. We recognize that the use of fossil fuels has contributed to an increase in greenhouse gases - mainly carbon dioxide and methane - in the earth's atmosphere. http://www.chevron.com/social_responsibility/environment/global_climate.asp
- ConocoPhillips position on climate change: ConocoPhillips recognizes that human activity, including the burning of fossil fuels, is contributing to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that can lead to adverse changes in global climate.
- ExxonMobil publishes its views on climate change: Stating that the risk of long-term climate change needs to be addressed in a sound way, the company calls for moving beyond the highly-politicized Kyoto Protocol to an effective international climate policy.
- BP. In 1997, was the first company in our industry to accept that, while the scientific understanding of climate change is still emerging, precautionary action is justified. BP’s position on climate change at
1. Information on emissions trading available at http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9002333&contentId=3072049
2. Information on carbon capture and storage available at http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9002452&contentId=7004722
- Shell Oil position on climate change: Sir Philip Watts, Chairman of the Committee of Managing Directors of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies, speaking on the subject of climate change, Sir Philip said there is evidence that climate change is a real threat - greenhouse gases from human activity, largely produced by burning fossil fuels bring about long lasting atmospheric changes likely to affect the climate. He said that we should take action now and that can be done economically and action need not affect prosperity. http://www.shell.com/home/Framework?siteId=media-en&FC2=&FC3=/media-en/html/iwgen/news_and_library/press_releases/2003/pw_climatechange_12032003.html
1. Information on Shell’s approach to climate change at
- Army Corps of Engineers, Climate Change and Variability. Describes what city water managers can do to prepare for possible climate change.
- Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) is a campaign of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives ( ICLEI ). The CCP is a performance-oriented campaign that offers a framework for local governments to develop a strategic agenda to reduce global warming and air pollution emissions, with the benefit of improving community livability. More than six hundred and fifty local governments are participating in the campaign, representing 15% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and the numbers are growing. Information available at http://www.iclei.org/co2/.
Ten things local governments can do to reduce emissions at:
- Natsource's Environmental Action Desk engages businesses, associations, and individuals to offset their impact on the environment through the purchase of Environmental Action Certificates -- which represent 'environmentally friendly' projects.
- State and Local Outreach Kit at EPA. This page provides outreach material designed to inform the public about global warming, with a primary focus on voluntary greenhouse gas reduction strategies that help states, communities, and individuals save money, improve air quality, and lower risks to human health. Available at: http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/
- DOE Draft Strategic Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Deployment of Advanced Technology (September 22, 2005), available at: http://www.climatetechnology.gov/library/2005/pr21sep2005.htm
- California Energy Commission: Energy Quest.
- Energy information for kids at the Energy Information Administration at DOE http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/
- Exploring the Environment website provides general, simple information on a variety of topics, including Global Climate Change. The students are given a scenario and as environmental consultants are asked to help a potential wheat farmer sort through the problems around Global Climate Change. The website is easy to use for both teachers and students.
- GE Lighting Audit for Your School: This website allows students to complete a lighting audit of the school (which could be applied to home or any other location) to determine which light bulbs are the most energy efficient. This could be an action project that students undertake for the community. http://www.gelighting.com/gelauditor/school
- The National Association of Geoscience Teachers/Digital Library for Earth System Education’s “On the Cutting Edge” project
(http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/index.html) helps geoscience faculty stay up-to-date with both geoscience research and teaching methods. The workshop series and website combine to provide professional development opportunities, resources, and opportunities for faculty to interact on-line and in person with colleagues around the world who are focused on improving their teaching. An integral aspect of the project is development of an expanding community of geoscience educators with a strong and diverse leadership.
1. “Paleoclimate: Climate Change through Time” provides access to a spectrum of visualizations and supporting material that can be used effectively to teach students about paleoclimate through geologic time. Visualizations include simple animations, GIS-based animated maps, paleogeographic maps, as well as numerous illustrations and photos. Available at: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/visualization/collections/Climchg.html
- Global Warming. Information on global warming at the EPA website. http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/kids.
- EcoHealth (Environmental Change and Our Health) developed and produced at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, examines the changes that are transforming Earth and what they can mean for our health. This website is geared to middle-school students and their teachers, and delivers scientific information in a kid-friendly, engaging, and visually-vibrant manner. Tools include photos, diagrams, maps, video clips, lesson plans and a glossary. Information available at: http://www.ecohealth101.org/
- Louisiana Earth Science Teacher Professional Development:
Thinking Graphically About Energy Sources
- National Science Teachers Association: Stored Energy and Fuels http://www2.nsta.org/Energy/find/primer/primer3_1.html
- Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in Environmental Science http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/esi/1998/p/energy
- WBUR, Boston’s NPR Station, has a site on Dan Grossman’s trip to Antarctica to report on the ecological, scientific, and marine biological research going on at Palmer Station, on the Antarctic Peninsula. The main site is at:
Teaching guides for grades 3 - 5 and 6 through 8 on global warming & its impact in Antarctica at: http://www.wbur.org/special/antarctica/teacherguides/
- Global Climate Change Curriculum – NETL’s climate change curriculum fact sheet, developed in conjunction with The Keystone Center.
- Kid’s Hide-a-Way – Kids pages on the NETL website at: http://www.netl.doe.gov/coal/Carbon%20Sequestration/kidspage/index.html
- Carbon: An element on the move – Site sponsored by the BBC that puts kids in charge of one of the basic building blocks of life: an atom of carbon. They’ll embark on a journey that covers millions of years and takes them into every corner of the natural world, from the depths of the ocean to the heart of a volcano. This game lets you explore how carbon moves through the living and non-living world. Your task is to work out how to move it from place to place - by dissolving it in the sea, for instance, or by turning it into stone and then erupting it back into the atmosphere in an exploding volcano. http://www.open2.net/science/element/html/index.html
- Cool Kids for a Cool Climate – This UK-based site on global climate change is specifically geared towards kids.
- US Global Change Research Program’s educational resources for teachers and students available at: http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/education/default.htm
- Union of Concerned Scientists “Global Warming Materials for Educators”, available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science/global-warming-materials-for-educators.html
- Heritage Foundation. Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institute - a think tank - whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense. Energy policy is a national priority. Lawmakers should implement a long-term energy plan that balances supply and demand, ensures reliable and affordable supplies of energy for the future, and provides responsible stewardship of the nation's resources.
- American Enterprise Institute. The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research is dedicated to preserving and strengthening the foundations of freedom—limited government, private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and a strong foreign policy and national defense—through scholarly research, open debate, and publications. Founded in 1943 and located in Washington, D.C., AEI is one of America's largest and most respected "think tanks." They offer a book entitled “Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto,” by Richard B. Stewart, Jonathan B. Wiener at
- The Science & Environmental Policy Project, founded by atmospheric physicist and global warming skeptic S. Fred Singer; provides access to press releases, news articles, scientific studies and other materials available at:
- Brookings Institution. The Brookings Institution, one of Washington's oldest think tanks, is an independent, nonpartisan organization devoted to research, analysis, and public education with an emphasis on economics, foreign policy, governance, and metropolitan policy.
1. Article published in the Financial Times, “Power of the market can meet global warming challenge,” December 5, 2003. David B. Sandalow, Guest Scholar, Foreign Policy Studies and Stuart E. Eizenstat, Head of the International Practice, Covington & Burling. Available at http://www.brookings.edu/views/op-ed/fellows/sandalow20031205.htm
2. National Issues Forum Energy's Future: What Should Americans Know? Sources, Dependency, Conservation, Alternatives, Environment http://www.brookings.edu/comm/transcripts/20020621.htm
- Resources for the Future. As the premier independent institute dedicated exclusively to analyzing environmental, energy, and natural resource topics, RFF gathers under one roof a unique community of scholars conducting impartial research to enable policymakers to make sound choices. Work specifically on climate change can be found at http://www.rff.org/rff/Climate.cfm
- The George C. Marshall Institute was established in 1984 as a nonprofit corporation to conduct technical assessments of scientific issues with an impact on public policy. The Climate Change section of their website
contains an extensive list of publications produced by the Institute.
- World Resources Institute. World Resources Institute (WRI) is an environmental think tank that goes beyond research to find practical ways to protect the earth and improve people's lives. Work on climate can be found at
1. A report “Working 9 to 5 on Climate Change” details calculation tools to determine CO2 emissions, and how to reduce them. Tools include CO2 emissions from fuel used for heating and transportation,
CO2 emissions from purchased electricity
CO2 emissions from business travel by air, train, bus and car (http://docs.wri.org/business_travel_emissions.xls);
CO2 emissions from employee commuting
2. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) is an information and analysis tool on global climate change, and can be used to analyze a wide range of climate-related data questions and to help support future policy decisions made under the Climate Convention and in other forums. Available at
3. EarthTrends. An online collection of information regarding the environmental, social, and economic trends that shape our world. Committed to the principle that accurate information drives responsible decisions by governments and individuals, EarthTrends offers the public a large breadth of statistical, graphic, and analytical data in easily accessible formats. Offers detailed data tables and maps about resource consumption and emissions around the globe.
a. Carbon emissions per capita map http://earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=185&theme=3
b. Atmosphere and climate data tables
http://earthtrends.wri.org/datatables/index.cfm?theme=3 also available as Excel and Adobe downloads.
- Worldwatch Institute. The Worldwatch Institute offers a unique blend of interdisciplinary research, global focus, and accessible writing that has made it a leading source of information on the interactions among key environmental, social, and economic trends. Our work revolves around the transition to an environmentally sustainable and socially just society—and how to achieve it. Worldwatch produces two annual books “Vital Signs” and “State of the World” available for purchase from the website, that detail various environmental indicators around the globe. General research topics can be found at:
1. Climate Change
2. Energy Sources
- Earth Policy Institute. Dedicated to providing a vision of an environmentally sustainable economy—an eco-economy—as well as a roadmap of how to get from here to there. http://www.earth-policy.org. Books available for free download include:
1. “Plan B: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble,” by Lester R. Brown
2. “Eco-Economy: Building an Economy for the Earth,” by Lester R. Brown
- Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES). The leading U.S. coalition of environmental, investor, and advocacy groups working together for a sustainable future. (http://www.ceres.org).
Reports on climate change, including "Corporate Governance and Climate Change: Making the Connection" and "Electric Power, Investors, and Climate Change: A Call to Action" available at http://www.ceres.org/pub/.
(http://www.realclimate.org/) is a commentary site on climate science by working climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. It aims to provide a quick response to developing stories and provide the context sometimes missing in mainstream commentary. The site is restricted to scientific topics and does not get involved in any political or economic implications of the science. Climate science topics include paleoclimate, greenhouse gases, sun-earth connections, climate modeling, instrumental record, Arctic and Antarctic, aerosols, oceans, hurricanes, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The following is a small sample of articles and reports related to climate change that have appeared in the media.
- Three articles examining the effect of Europe’s 2003 heat wave on plant growth, available at: http://www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?id=5504&method=full
- “A Farmer’s Take on Carbon Sequestration” This article from the Yankton Daily Press, focused mainly on zoning issues related to livestock development, discusses concerns aired by producers at an agricultural Legislative Roundtable in South Dakota. Some producers branched off the subject to carbon sequestration, which allows farmers to collect payments for storing carbon dioxide in crops and soil. The article states that because the U.S. did not sign the Kyoto Treaty the development of carbon sequestration has slowed. December 1, 2004. Available at: http://www.yankton.net/stories/120104/com_20041201011.shtml (registration required)
- “Growers Can Profit From Parking Carbon on Farm.” Article highlights “carbon parking” on agricultural lands in the Western U.S. Karl Kupers, a Washington farmer, is already selling carbon credits from his conservation-tillage (CT) wheat field. Kupers and a group of partners formed the Pacific Northwest Direct Seed Association and entered a 10-year contract with Louisiana-based Entergy Corporation. Entergy gets credit for carbon-dioxide emissions reductions achieved by the farmers to offset the carbon dioxide emissions from the company's power plants in the United States. The project reduces carbon dioxide emissions 30,000 tons over a 10-year period, according to the contract. In addition to carbon parking potential, CT presents a spectrum of benefits to farmers - including savings in expenditures for weed control, labor and irrigation, says University of California Cooperative Extension cropping systems specialist Jeff Mitchell. AScribe, October 3, 2005, available at:
- "Confronting Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region: Impacts on Our Communities and Ecosystems." University of Illinois professor Michelle Wander and co-author Steve Clemmer of Union of Concerned Scientists say that agriculture can be an important part of the solution to global warming and they recommend incentives to sequester carbon on marginal lands. University of Illinois Press Release, February 28, 2005. Read the full report at: http://www.ucsusa.org/greatlakes
- “A New Global Warming Strategy.” According to a report issued by environmental group EarthSave International, cars and power plants will not be a major cause of global warming in our lifetime. Rather, the most significant source of climate change over the next half-century is likely animal agriculture. The report's data analysis, based on the work of leading climate scientists, shows that methane sources - not carbon dioxide sources - are the biggest cause of global warming today, and will continue to be for the next 50 years. World-Wire, August 29, 2005, available at:
For an online copy of the report visit
- “Sun's changes play role in global warming.” Climate models of global warming should be corrected to better account for changes in solar activity, according to Nicola Scafetta and Bruce West of Duke University. The new study is based in part on Columbia University research from 2003 in which scientists found errors in how data on solar brightness is interpreted. The researchers found that increased output from the sun might be to blame for 10 to 30 percent of the global warming. The Duke analyses examined solar changes over 22 years versus 11 years used in previous studies – a time frame long enough to isolate the effect of volcanoes and cyclical shifts in ocean currents. LiveScience, September 30, 2005, available at: http://msnbc.msn.com/id/9544093/
- “Antarctic ice melts as sea warms but cause unknown.” Leading scientists attending a British Royal Society conference in London said Antarctica is melting, adding to the rise in global sea levels and putting millions of lives and whole economies at risk. Said Anthony Payne of the University of Bristol, “We know a lot more about the ice sheets than we did before. We know change is happening and that it is rapid. What we don't know is why or what is causing it – what proportion is anthropomorphic.” Reuters, October 18, 2005, available at: http://www.enn.com/today.html?id=9047
- Testimony of NOAA's National Hurricane Center Director Max Mayfield before the Senate Commerce Disaster Prevention and Prediction Subcommittee on "The Lifesaving Role of Accurate Hurricane Prediction," September 20, 2005, in which he denies the link between global warming and increased hurricane intensity. Available at: http://www.legislative.noaa.gov/Testimony/mayfieldfinal092005.pdf
- “The Truth about Global Warming.” Author Sandi Doughton was prompted to research this story after attending a forum for science writers in 2004, where “several speakers involved with climate science complained that skeptics of global warming get equal treatment in news coverage, as if scientists are hopelessly divided on the question. The speakers insisted they are not.” Seattle Times, October 9, 2005, available at:
http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgihttps://web.archive.org/web/vortex/display?slug=globewarm11&date=20051009 (registration required)
- New York Times article “Errors Cited in Assessing Climate Data:” Some scientists who question whether human-caused global warming poses a threat have long pointed to records that showed the atmosphere's lowest layer, the troposphere, had not warmed over the last two decades and had cooled in the tropics. Now two independent studies have found errors in the complicated calculations used to generate the old temperature records, which involved stitching together data from thousands of weather balloons lofted around the world and a series of short-lived weather satellites. Article available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/12/science/earth/12climate.html (registration required).
- “Natural Climate Variability”, a paper by the George C. Marshall Institute, indicates that “to determine the significance of any human impact on the climate system, we must first know the natural variability in the climate system and understand that natural climate variability is a function of all of the natural components of the system.” The complete paper is available at http://www.marshall.org/article.php?id=340
- “Climate Policy: A Reality Check:” remarks at the annual meeting of The Society Of Environmental Journalists, By William O’Keefe, CEO of the George Marshall Institute, on September 30, 2005. Available at:
- “The Market in Carbon.” Article discusses the carbon trading industry, particularly how emissions trading markets are “springing up all over the place.” The Observer, June 26, 2005, available at:
- “The Carbon Game.” This article provides an excellent overview of carbon trading. Focuses on the European Trading Scheme (ETS), National Allocation Plans (NAP), and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Also highlights the Acid Rain Program and the voluntary Chicago trading scheme in the U.S. Nature, November 18, 2004. Available at:
- “FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announced.” A coalition of the largest electric utilities and coal companies in the United States announced that they have created the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, a non-profit company that will partner with the U.S. Department of Energy to facilitate the design, construction and operation of a 275 MW coal-fired power plant with zero emissions. PWR Newswire, September 13, 2005, available at:
- "Burial Plan." An article from The Wall Street Journal that highlights a geologic CO2 sequestration project, InSalah, being undertaken by BP in a remote region of Algeria. One million tons of CO2 will be captured from a natural gas processing plant and re-injected into the natural gas-bearing formation. The cost of the CO2 capture and compression equipment was $100 million. February 4, 2005, available at:
http://online.wsj.com/public/us (subscription required).
- “BP and Partners Plan ‘Carbon-Free’ Electricity from Hydrogen.” BP and its partners ConocoPhillips, Shell Transport & Trading Co., and Scottish and Southern Energy announced they plan to build a clean energy plant near Peterhead in Scotland at a cost of $600 million. The plant, which could come online in 2009, would convert natural gas to hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases, then use the hydrogen gas as fuel for a 350MW power station. Forbes, June 30, 2005, available at:
- "Climate: Low-carbing the atmosphere." This article from The Washington Times highlights carbon sequestration technology as "the leading weapon in the U.S. government's arsenal against climate change." Discusses the many different types of storage, including: ocean, soil, depleted oil reservoirs, and trees. Mentions research and field tests performed by the University of Kansas, the University of Alberta, and Anadarko. January 31, 2005, available at: http://www.washtimes.com/upi-breaking/20050128-124908-5585r.htm
- “Geosequestration: Burying carbon or burying our heads in the sand?” As a part of Australia's vigorous debate on Global Climate Change and options to reduce GHG emissions, this opinion article from Melbourne Indymedia sets forth arguments against geosequestration. The article is triggered by the Australian government's funding of sequestration research and the recently initiated Gorgon project, a geosequestration project supported by Shell, Chevron, Texaco, and Exxon. October 29, 2004. Available at: http://melbourne.indymedia.org/news/2004/10/82162.php