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Climate Status Investigations
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Curriculum Grid
Day One | Day Two | Day Three | Day Four | Day Five | Day Six | Day Seven | Day Eight | Day Nine | Day ten
Economics and Emissions - Stage Summaries

Day 5:

Potential Effects (Language Arts)
What's Driving Our Community (Science)

What's Driving Our Community? (Math)
Economics Of Emission Trading (Social Studies)
Links on this page: Stage Summaries | Directions | Company Roles | Global Nobrac Protocol Alert | Norbac Protocol Contract | Spruce Tree Form | International Bureau of Plane Safety Code | Lightning Boltz Power Company Billing Sheet | Company Sheet | Accountant's Ledger Sheet | Fate Cards | Energy Pricing and Information Sheet | Business Report | Teacher Debrief Guide and Background Information | Role Cards | Airplane Purchase Evaluation Sheet

National Education Standards Met:

Social Studies discipline

oal: Students produce a manufactured good, monitor energy consumption, encounter international government regulations, make choices about emissions and energy choices and share findings in order to understand how international commerce could affect GHG emissions and the economy.

Objectives: Students will:
  • Understand basic math and accounting skills
  • Participate in a business simulation
  • Learn how greenhouse gas emissions affect business

 Materials (For class of 30):

  • At least 3 classroom volunteers, administrators, co-workers or former students
  • 10 sheets of plain white paper per multi-national company group
  • 10 popsicle sticks per company
  • 10 kitchen timers
  • 8 copies of the International Bureau of Airplane Safety Code
  • 10 Economics and Emissions-Company Role Cards
  • 10 Economics and Emissions-Accountant's Ledger Sheet
  • 1 Overhead transparency of Economics and Emissions-Lightning Boltz Power Company Prices sheet
  • 10 Lightning Boltz Power Company Billing Sheet
  • 10 sets of markers
  • 1 set of company labels
  • 10 plant sites 2 ft by 2 ft square of paper
  • 8, 9"x12" envelopes
  • 32 pairs of safety goggles
  • 10 toy windmills
  • 10 small aluminum baking trays (disposable)
  • Money

Time: Three 45-60 minute class periods

Standards Met: C3, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E7, E8, E13, G5, M1, M2, M3, LA4, LA5, LA7, LA11, LA12


  • Make 8 large envelopes with company names on the front for each multi-national company to include:
    • -10 sheets of plain 8" x 12" paper
      -1 Economics and Emissions-Company Role Card
      -1 wooden popsicle stick
      -1 Economics and Emissions-Accountant's Ledger Sheet
      -1 Lightning Boltz Power Company Billing Sheet
      -1 set of markers
      -Company label
      -1 plant site 2 ft by 2 ft square of paper
      -$2000.00 in cash

  • Review the Economics and Emissions-Lightning Boltz Power Company Information sheet.  Assign this role to yourself or a parent/administrator/other volunteer.
  • You may want to color code all company sheets.


  • Set the scene with students. Explain that they will be participating in a business simulation. They will be in a company that will be asked to design and manufacture airplanes.
  • Explain that there is a Global Climate Change research team that needs a fleet of ten planes to transport its scientists around the world to collect data.  They will be the final reviewers and will choose the company and/or companies from which to purchase the planes.
  • Their goal is to make a fleet of planes that meets government regulations, is the most environmentally conscious, has an appealing design and remains fiscally sound. The Global Climate Change Research Team will only buy airplanes that have accompanying documentation of the manufacturing process This is not a race and so teams should take time to make informed decisions about their choices in all aspects of the simulation. 
  • Divide students into 8 groups of four. Assign these groups to one of the multi-national companies.
  • Hand out multi-national company envelopes.
  • Review the contents of the envelopes and read through all instruction sheets as a group.
  • Have each group read their role cards and determine which roles they will be in the group.
  • Place the Economics and Emissions-Lightning Boltz Power Company Prices transparency on the overhead and review the costs of each energy source.
  • Allow time for students to ask questions before they begin.
  • Remind each group that their ultimate goal is to make money!
  • Complete Stage 1 of the activity.


  • Complete stages two and three of the activity.


  • Complete stage four of the activity.

Economics and Emissions-Stage Summaries

The information below summarizes activities that should occur in each stage of the lesson.

Stage 1

  • Students are introduced to the various energy sources, cost and related emissions by the Lightning Boltz Power Company representative (teacher/volunteer).
  • Students then determine what energy they need and purchase it from Lightning Boltz Power Company in ten minute increments.  Associated emissions are included in their contract with Lightning Boltz Power Company.
  • Energy is used in ten minute increments and is measured using a kitchen timer obtained at the Lightning Boltz Power Company.
  • An International Bureau of Plane Safety Code (IBPSC) representative explains the specific standards by which each plane will be measured.
  • Students design and begin producing their first airplane.
  • Remind students that they will eventually be trying to sell their product so they should try to make it as attractive as possible.
  • Remind students that it is not a race to the finish.
  • Each company must complete a successful test flight according to IBPSC standards.  Refer to the IBPSC information sheet for specifics.
  • Remind companies that they may only perform one supervised test flight in the test flight area, for their prototype airplane.
  • Once companies have received design approval for their airplanes, the IBPSC representative gives each company employee a pair of flight goggles (safety goggles or something similar).

Stage 2

  • While producing airplanes, students receive a news flash introducing them to the Global Nobrac Protocol. They must reduce their GHG emissions by 10% to continue production.
  • A United Governments representative explains the different methods companies can use to lower GHG emissions.
  • Students are given time to determine their company's choice for reducing GHGs by 10%, the entire time, they are still using energy. 
  • Once reduction methods are chosen, each business must complete a Nobrac Protocol Contract stating how their company will comply.  The contract is signed and approved by the United Governments representative.
  • Students continue to manufacture airplanes.
  • Companies draw fate cards. They must continue to manufacture and make changes while experiencing some real world business challenges.

Stage 3

  • When a fleet of ten airplanes has been manufactured, companies must compile total price per airplane, type(s) of energy used, and total emissions and place it on a table tent for the Global Climate Change team to see.
  • The Global Climate Change Team Representative will then evaluate each group's planes and determine from what company or companies they will purchase a fleet.

Stage 4

  • Debrief the activity using the Economics and Emissions-Business Report.

Economics and Emissions-Directions


  1. CLEAR OFF YOUR DESK. Each group will be operating an airplane manufacturing company. All work and storage must be done on your plant site. Plant sites will be represented by the large sheet of paper in your company envelope.
  2. PURCHASE POWER. Purchase power from Lightning Boltz Power Company before you start working on your plane.
  3. KEEP RECORDS. Keep detailed records of everything your group spends, and earns.  Designate one person in your group to be the accountant. All money transactions must be recorded on your accounting ledger sheet.
  4. DECIDE YOUR COMPANY ROLES to get started.
  5. READ YOUR REGULATIONS. Your group must produce an airplane following the regulations you have been given. Your product manufacturing must follow any government regulations and meet specifications--or the final customer may reject it, and you will lose money
  6. DISCUSS A DESIGN as a group talk about your design and how you will manufacture your plane. Make sure everyone has input.
  7. BEGIN PRODUCTION. As soon as you have made some decisions about your airplane, get started!
  8. SET A PRICE for your product.

Economics and Emissions-Company Roles

Design Coordinator: All members of your company should participate in designing your airplane but it is your job to make sure that all members' ideas are taken into consideration and to make the decision on the final design. You work with the Regulations Compliance Specialist to make sure that your design meets the International Bureau of Plane Safety Code. You are also responsible for making sure that your plane flies so that the Global Climate Change research team wants to purchase your fleet. You will closely monitor the production of your fleet of planes for quality control.

Name of Design Coordinator: ______________________________________________

Regulations Compliance Specialist: You are responsible for making sure that your product meets all government and international regulation agency standards. When your plane is ready to be evaluated and you are ready to perform a test flight it is your job to communicate with the International Bureau of Plane Safety. If there are any modifications needed for your design it is your job to decide upon the most cost efficient way to make the modifications to meet code.
Name of Regulations Compliance Specialist:

Energy Purchasing Specialist: You will be responsible for purchasing the power needed for your company to do business. Along with the other members of your company, you will determine which power source you would like to purchase and keep accurate records as to the amount of power used and at what cost. Should any government energy regulations be put in place during the production process, it will be your responsibility to evaluate how best to comply with the regulation while working closely with the accountant to consider cost.

Name of Energy Purchasing Specialist:_____________________________________________

Accountant: You are responsible for keeping the accountant ledger for your company. You need to work closely with all members of your company to monitor expenses and decide on final sales price based on production costs. When it is time to sell your product, you will be responsible for wheeling and dealing with the Global Climate Change Research Team.

Name of Accountant: ___________________________________________________________


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Economics and Emissions - Global Nobrac Protocol Alert

The governments of England, United States of America, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Argentina, Japan, Germany and Australia hereby declare that all manufacturing businesses operating in the aforementioned countries must reduce industrial emissions by 10% due to a high level of
greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

The protocol was approved by the United Governments in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Companies operating in the aforementioned countries who currently carry emissions must determine ways in which their company can reduce GHG emissions and take immediate action before continuing the production process. 




Percent GHG emissions reduced

Plant Trees

$200 per tree

Each tree reduces by 2%

Purchase new energy technology

1 Windmill costs $300
1 Solar Panel unit $300

Each technology reduces by 5%

Improve Energy Efficiency at your plant site by switching off the lights at night time.


Reduces 1%

Improve Technology

$250 per ruler
$250 per 10 Paper clip
$250 per 10 Pieces of graph paper
$250 per pair of Scissors

Each technology reduces by 4%









In order to proceed with manufacturing you must complete the Nobrac Protocol Contract and present it to the United Governments Nobrac Protocol Office where you may negotiate your emissions reductions and purchase any needed materials.

Economics and Emissions - Norbac Protocol Contract

Our company, ____________________________________, is reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 10% in accordance with the Norbac Protocol effective immediately.

To do so, we will:










Company Representative ________________________________________

United Governments Representative ________________________________
Economics and Emissions - Spruce Tree Form




International Bureau of Plane Safety Code

Any airplanes manufactured for flight in the airspace of England, United States of America, Argentina, South Africa, Japan, Germany, Saudi Arabia or Australia, must adhere to the following design and manufacturing guidelines. Any manufacturing company who fails to comply with this code will incur fines and penalties.

  1. Planning, design and manufacture of airplanes may only take place when the company has a valid energy supply purchased from Lightning Boltz Power Company.
  2. All Planning, design and manufacture of airplanes may only take place on the company plant site.
  3. All airplanes must include and be able to support during flight, the international regulation fuselage (Popsicle stick).
  4. All airplanes must display the manufacturing company name and country of origin.
  5. All prototype airplanes (the first one you make) must be inspected by an International Bureau of Plane Safety Official before the company manufactures their fleet of aircraft.
  6. Once your company design has been approved by a Bureau of Plane Safety Official, you may perform one supervised test flight.
  7. Any companies involved in performing an illegal test flight will have any and all planes currently manufactured or in the process of being manufactured confiscated by the Bureau of Plane Safety, quarantined for a period of 10 minutes and only returned to the company for the fee of $100 per plane or part of a plane.
  8. All planes must fly at least 10 feet ( the flight path is not required to be straight ) in order to be considered for sale.
  9. Planes may only be sold to the Global Climate Change Research Institute after the prototype has been cleared for use by the Bureau of Plane Safety.

Economics and Emissions - Lightning Boltz Power Company Billing Sheet

Type of Power Purchased in 10 minute increments


Amount of Emissions

Approval of Lightning Boltz Representative




































































Economics and Emissions - Company Sheet

The Royal Aviation Company Inc.
West Limeyton

Planes R Us
Big Town
United States of America

Turbonitchi Planes

Meserschmit Machines


Safari Manufacturing
Outer Savannah
South Africa


Kangaroo Engineering
Koala City

Sandy Aeronautics
Saudi Arabia


Tango Technology

















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Economics and Emissions - Accountant's Ledger Sheet

Company Name: ________________ __________________

Employees Names: ________________________________

Starting Balance:  __________________  Ending Balance: __________________















































































   TOTAL REVENUE: _________________

-TOTAL EXPENSES:                          

= PROFIT (LOSS): ___________________



Economics and Emissions - Fate Cards

Hurricane Brooke is moving over the gulf coast of North America and the oil refineries in the region have been badly affected. The price of oil has risen to $75 a barrel and all companies are paying more to ship their airplane parts. All companies must pay $150 in extra shipping and handling fees

There is a strike at the wind power station. Workers are demanding Patagonia wind proof jackets to wear while on the job. Anyone using wind power must pay a fee of $200 for a mediator to work with the company and union to work out the labor dispute.

There has been an explosion at the Glowing River Nuclear Energy Plant. Two employees have been killed and several are hospitalized with radiation exposure. The plant is currently closed due to a pending international investigation. Any company using nuclear power must stop production for 15 minutes and then convert to another power source.

A crippling drought in central China means the world's largest hydroelectric dam will temporarily close. Any company using hydroelectric power must must stop production for 5 minutes and pay a fine of $100 to restart.

Due to the Global Nobrac Protocol airplanes must also reduce their GHG emissions. Therefore, all airplanes which have been completed must be retroactively fitted with a catalytic converter at a total cost of $50 per finished airplane.

All the coal-fired power plants in your region have joined a group insurance plan for its employees that includes vision and dental for all employees. The price of coal has therefore been raised to $40.00 per 10 minute increment for all companies using this form of energy.

The company that makes solar panels has been forced out of business due to declining sales. Therefore, solar paneling will no longer be manufactured or maintained. Any company using solar power as their source of purchased power from Lightning Boltz Power company must immediately stop using that power source and find an alternative.

The Global Federation of Nations is honoring one company with the Most Kind to the Environment Award. The company who has the least emissions so far will receive $200.



















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Economics and Emissions Energy Pricing and Information Sheet




Economics and Emissions - Business Report

Name:  _____________________________________________

Your role in the company: ________________________________________________

Directions: Answer the following questions based on your experience and your classmates' experiences during the Economics and Emissions activity.

  1. How did you decide what to charge for your product?

  2. Did your company make or lose money? Why?

  3. How did the regulations on plane manufacturing affect your company?

  4. In a few sentences, write your company's emission strategy.  Would that strategy continue working if your company had to reduce GHGs again?  What are some of the long-term things that could happen to a company in this situation?

  5. How much did your group end up spending during the last round where the fate cards came into play?

  6. Was any group not affected by the emission credit program?

  7. In a short paragraph, describe what parts of the manufacturing process were successful and what parts could have been improved. List ways your company might have done things differently.


Economics and Emissions-Teacher Debrief Guide and Background Information

The Kyoto protocol - A brief summary

The Kyoto Protocol is a plan created by the United Nations for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that tries to reduce the effects of global warming. The plan says that countries that adopt (follow) the Kyoto Protocol have to try to reduce how much carbon dioxide (and other "greenhouse gases" which could hurt the atmosphere) they put into the air.

The full name of the Kyoto Protocol is the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is called the Kyoto Protocol because it was made in Kyoto, Japan. The Kyoto Protocol came into force on February 16, 2005 after the ratification by Russia on November 18, 2004. As of September 2005, 156 countries have ratified the agreement, representing over 61% of global emissions. Notable exceptions to the treaty include the United States and Australia. In addition, many nations have their own efforts underway and both internationally and domestically a number of cities, companies and individuals are doing their part to study and prevent climate change.


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Economics and Emissions - Role Cards

Volunteers playing roles may wear a costume to represent their role or a nametag.

Lightning Boltz Power Company Representative - Alec Tricity
Your company specializes in energy produced by coal fired power plants, wind mills, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and solar energy. You will supply energy to the 8 multi-national airplane manufacturing companies. Your company is expected to supply energy for all businesses. 
Refer to the Economics and Emissions Energy Pricing and Information Sheet for details.

You will closely monitor companies and make sure that they have a power supply when they are manufacturing their product.

At an appropriate point in the game you may offer credit for companies who have run out of money.

The Global Climate Change Research Team Representative - This is a good time to have Berry Metric revisit your classroom or you can play his colleague Dr. Ophelia Zone.
You will evaluate the finished fleet of airplanes and purchase the ones which
best meet the criteria on the airplane purchase evaluation sheet.



International Bureau of Plane Safety Representative - Jet T. Akeoff
You will be responsible for all questions regarding the design and flight of the company airplanes. ( See International Bureau of Plane Safety Code Sheet) You will man the test flight area and conduct test flights and sign off on companies moving forward into the production stage.

Set up a test flight area somewhere where you have space to conduct test flights of 10 feet. Mark the test flight area with masking tape. Students will come to you for their test flight.


United Governments Global Nobrac Protocol Compliance Officer - Claire D'air-
You will make the announcement that the Global Nobrac Protocol has been ratified (see Global Nobrac Alert Sheet). You will hand out the Nobrac protocol alert and answer any questions.

You will then sell solutions to companies and sign off on their Global Nobrac Contract.

During the later stages of stage three you will also announce a series of incidents that will affect airplane manufacturing globally. Each company will pick a fate card from the box during the manufacturing process and the fate will apply to all companies. You will administer this stage.


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Airplane Purchase Evaluation Sheet


Amount of Emissions

Cash on hand at the end of the game

Complete documentation of the manufacturing process

Sandy Aeronautics




Kangaroo Engineering




The Royal Aviation Company Inc.




Planes R Us




Meserschmidt Machines




Turbonitchi Planes




Safari Manufacturing




Tango Technology














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