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Standards Key
Please look for these symbols in the lesson plans indicating what subject areas are represented. All standards listed are the National Education Standards for grades 5-9.   

Social Studies






Language Arts


National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Standards Key

C1: Civic Life, Politics and Government
What are Civic Life, Politics and Government?  Why are government and politics necessary? What are the nature and purposes of constitutions?

C2:  Foundations of the Political System
What are the foundations of the American Political system? What is the American idea of constitutional government?  What is American political culture?

C3:  Principles of Democracy
How Does the Government Established by the Constitution Embody the Purposes, Values, and Principles of American Democracy?  What does the national government do?  What is the place of law in the American constitutional system?

C4:  Other Nations and World Affairs
What is the Relationship of the United States to Other Nations and to World Affairs? How is the world organized politically?

C5:  Roles of the Citizen
What are the Roles of the Citizen in American Democracy? What are the rights of citizens?  What are the responsibilities of citizens?

E1:  Productive Resources
Concepts include: scarcity, budgeting, expected value, economic criteria

E2:  Effective Decision Making
Concepts include: consumption, personal budgeting, needs vs. wants

E3:  Allocating Goods and Services
Concepts include: distribution methods, market economy, economic systems, consumption, demand

E4:  Positive and Negative Incentives
Concepts include: consumer behavior, monetary and non-monetary incentives

E5:  Voluntary Exchange
Concepts include: buyers, sellers, trade, standard of living, imports, exports

E6:  Gains from Trade
Concepts include: international trade, U.S. production of goods, transaction costs, opportunity cost

E7:  Markets and Market Prices
Concepts include: relative price, equilibrium price, supply and demand, exchange rate

E8:  Supply and Demand
Concepts include: law of demand, relationships between price and quantity, interrelationships of markets

E9:  Competition in the Marketplace
Concepts include: price and nonprice competition

E10: Market Institutions
Concepts include: collective bargaining, savers, borrowers, AFL-CIO, tax exempt status

E11: Money
Concepts include: currency, checking account, loans, deposits, money supply

E12: Interest Rates
Concepts include: interest rates, inflation

E13: Income and Earning
Concepts include: wages, salary, productive resources, labor, employers, supply and demand relationships

E14: Entrepreneurs
Concepts include: risk, incentive, profit and loss relationship

E15: Investment
Concepts include: standards of living, labor productivity, capital goods, human capital, technological development

E16: Government in the Economy
Concepts include: tax dollar uses, private and public sectors, market economies, antitrust laws, Federal Trade Commission, federal revenue, federal expenditures

E17: Cost of Government
Concepts include: cost vs. benefit, public policy costs, benefits to society

E18: National Productivity
Concepts include: GDP, per capita GDP, interrelationships between households, businesses and government in the economy

E19: Unemployment Influences
Concepts include: unemployment, labor force, inflation, purchasing power

E20: Federal Budgetary Influences
Concepts include: federal budgetary policy, Federal Reserve System

World History
WH1: The Beginnings of Human Society
Biological and cultural processes, early human communities, emergence of agricultural societies around the world

WH2: Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples, 4000
1000 BCE
Major characterizations of civilization, agrarian societies, population movements, militarization in Eurasia, major trends in Eurasia and Africa

WH3: Classical Traditions, Major Religions, And Giant Empires,
1000BCE - 300 BCE
Innovation and change, emergence of Aegean civilization, interrelationships among peoples, development of major religions and empires

WH4:  Expanding Zones of Exchange and Encounter, 300 -1000 CE
Imperial crises, Islamic civilization, Tang dynasty, redefinition of Europe, global trends

WH5: Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000 - 1500 CE
Interregional systems of communication, trade and cultural exchange, expansion of states in the Americas, patterns of crisis and recovery in Afro-Eurasia, global trends
WH6: The Emergence of the First Global Age, 1450 - 1770
Global transformations, global intercommunication, territorial empires, major global trends

WH7: An Age of Revolutions, 1750 - 1914
Causes and consequences of political, agricultural and industrial revolutions, transformation of Eurasian societies, patterns of nationalism, state-building and social reform, major global trends

WH8: A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement, 1900 - 1945
Reform, revolution and change of world economy, WWI, WWII, global trends beyond WWII

WH9: The 20th Century since 1945: Promises and Paradoxes
Post WWII reconstruction, international power relationships, interdependent world, major global trends

U.S. History
USH1:  Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)
Comparative characteristics of societies in Americas, Western Europe and Western Africa; European exploration and colonization

USH2:  Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
European attraction to the Americas, emergence of political, social and religious institutions, slavery

USH3:  Revolution and The New Nation (1754 - 1820s)
Causes and impacts of the American Revolution, institutions and practices of government, American political system roots, U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights

USH4:  Expansion and Reform
U.S. territorial expansion, Native Americans, immigration, westward movement, political democracy

USH5:  Civil War and Reconstruction (1850 - 1877)
Causes and effects of the Civil War, reconstruction

USH6:  The Development of the Industrial United States
Rise of corporations, industry, mechanized farming; massive immigration, rise of the American labor movement, Federal Indian policy

USH7:  The Emergence of Modern America (1890 - 1930)
Progressives, urbanization, political corruption, changing role of the U.S.

USH8:  The Great Depression and WWII (1929 - 1945)
Causes and effects of the Great Depression, New Deal, welfare state, causes and course of WWII

USH9:  Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s)
Economic boom and social transformation of postwar U.S., Cold War, domestic policies after WWII, racial and gender equality issues

USH10: Contemporary United States (1968 to present)
Recent developments in foreign and domestic policies; economic, social and cultural developments

G1:  The World in Spatial Terms
Use of Geographic representations, tools and technologies; organizing information in a spatial context; analyze spatial organization of people, places and environments on Earth's surface

G2:  Places and Regions
Physical and human characteristics of places; influence of culture and experience on perception of places

G3:  Physical Systems
Physical processes that shape patterns on Earth's surface, characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems

G4:  Human Systems
Migration of human populations, cultural mosaics, economic interdependence, processes and patterns of human settlement, influence of forces of cooperation and conflict on division and control of Earth's surface

G5:  Environment and Society
Modification of the environment by human actions, relationship between physical and human systems, resource distribution

G6:  The Uses of Geography
Applications of geography to interpret the past, present and future

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National Science Education Standards Key

S1:  Unifying Concepts and Processes
Systems, order and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement, evolution and equilibrium, form and function

S2:  Science as Inquiry
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry

S3:  Physical Science
Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy

S4:  Life Science
Structure and function in living systems; reproduction and heredity; regulation and behavior; populations and ecosystems; diversity and adaptations of organisms

S5:  Earth and Space Science
Structure of the earth system; Earth' history; Earth in the solar system

S6:  Science and Technology
Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology

S7:  Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
Personal health; populations, resources, and environments; natural hazards, risks and benefits; science and technology in society

S8:  History and Nature of Science
Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science

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National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Standards Key

M1: Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships
among numbers, and number systems

  • work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems;
  • compare and order fractions, decimals, and percents efficiently and find their approximate locations on a number line;
  • develop meaning for percents greater than 100 and less than 1;
  • understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships;
  • develop an understanding of large numbers and recognize and appropriately use exponential, scientific, and calculator notation;
  • use factors, multiples, prime factorization, and relatively prime numbers to solve problems;
  • develop meaning for integers and represent and compare quantities with them.

M2: Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one

  • understand the meaning and effects of arithmetic operations with fractions, decimals, and integers;
  • use the associative and commutative properties of addition and multiplication and the distributive property of multiplication over addition to simplify computations with integers, fractions, and decimals;
  • understand and use the inverse relationships of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and squaring and finding square roots to simplify computations and solve problems.

M3: Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates

  • select appropriate methods and tools for computing with fractions and decimals from among mental computation, estimation, calculators or computers, and paper and pencil, depending on the situation, and apply the selected methods;
  • develop and analyze algorithms for computing with fractions, decimals, and integers and develop fluency in their use;
  • develop and use strategies to estimate the results of rational-number computations and judge the reasonableness of the results;
  • develop, analyze, and explain methods for solving problems involving proportions, such as scaling and finding equivalent ratios.

M4: Understand patterns, relations, and functions

  • represent, analyze, and generalize a variety of patterns with tables, graphs, words, and, when possible, symbolic rules;
  • relate and compare different forms of representation for a relationship;
  • identify functions as linear or nonlinear and contrast their properties from tables, graphs, or equations.

M5: Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures
using algebraic symbols

  • develop an initial conceptual understanding of different uses of variables;
  • explore relationships between symbolic expressions and graphs of lines, paying particular attention to the meaning of intercept and slope;
  • use symbolic algebra to represent situations and to solve problems, especially those that involve linear relationships;
  • recognize and generate equivalent forms for simple algebraic expressions and solve linear equations.

M6: Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative

  • model and solve contextualized problems using various representations, such as graphs, tables, and equations.

M7: Analyze change in various contexts

  • use graphs to analyze the nature of changes in quantities in linear relationships.

M8: Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three- dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships

  • precisely describe, classify, and understand relationships among types of two- and three-dimensional objects using their defining properties;
  • understand relationships among the angles, side lengths, perimeters, areas, and volumes of similar objects;
  • create and critique inductive and deductive arguments concerning geometric ideas and relationships, such as congruence, similarity, and the Pythagorean relationship.

M9: Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems

  • use coordinate geometry to represent and examine the properties of geometric shapes;
  • use coordinate geometry to examine special geometric shapes, such as regular polygons or those with pairs of parallel or perpendicular sides.

M10: Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations

  • describe sizes, positions, and orientations of shapes under informal transformations such as flips, turns, slides, and scaling;
  • examine the congruence, similarity, and line or rotational symmetry of objects using transformations.

M11: Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems

  • draw geometric objects with specified properties, such as side lengths or angle measures;
  • use two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional objects to visualize and solve problems such as those involving surface area and volume;
  • use visual tools such as networks to represent and solve problems;
  • use geometric models to represent and explain numerical and algebraic relationships;
  • recognize and apply geometric ideas and relationships in areas outside the mathematics classroom, such as art, science, and everyday life.

M12: Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement

  • understand both metric and customary systems of measurement;
  • understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within the same system;
  • understand, select, and use units of appropriate size and type to measure angles, perimeter, area, surface area, and volume.

M13: Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements

  • use common benchmarks to select appropriate methods for estimating measurements;
  • select and apply techniques and tools to accurately find length, area, volume, and angle measures to appropriate levels of precision;
  • develop and use formulas to determine the circumference of circles and the area of triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles and develop strategies to find the area of more-complex shapes;
  • develop strategies to determine the surface area and volume of selected prisms, pyramids, and cylinders;
  • solve problems involving scale factors, using ratio and proportion;
  • solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such attributes as velocity and density.

M14: Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect,organize, and display relevant data to answer

  • formulate questions, design studies, and collect data about a characteristic shared by two populations or different characteristics within one population;
  • select, create, and use appropriate graphical representations of data, including histograms, box plots, and scatterplots.

M15: Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data

  • find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread, including mean and interquartile range;
  • discuss and understand the correspondence between data sets and their graphical representations, especially histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, box plots, and scatterplots.

M16: Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data

  • use observations about differences between two or more samples to make conjectures about the populations from which the samples were taken;
  • make conjectures about possible relationships between two characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and approximate lines of fit;
  • use conjectures to formulate new questions and plan new studies to answer them.

M17: Understand and apply basic concepts of probability

  • understand and use appropriate terminology to describe complementary and mutually exclusive events;
  • use proportionality and a basic understanding of probability to make and test conjectures about the results of experiments and simulations;
  • compute probabilities for simple compound events, using such methods as organized lists, tree diagrams, and area models.

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National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Language Arts Standards Key

LA1: Reading for Perspective
Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

LA2: Understanding the Human Experience
Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.

LA3: Evaluation Strategies
Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics).

LA4: Communication Skills
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

LA5: Communication Strategies
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

LA6: Applying Knowledge
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

LA7: Evaluating Data
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

LA8: Developing Research Skills
Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge.

LA9: Multicultural Understanding
Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles.

LA10:  Applying Non-English Perspectives
Students whose first language is not English make use of their first language to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop understanding of content across the curriculum.

LA11:  Participating in Society
Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.

LA12:  Applying Language Skills
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

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Washington, DC 20036
Phone: 202-452-1590
Fax: 202-452-1138


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